ReSkin, Silicone Skin Technology

SKIN IN TROUBLE

medical (1)The human skin is very resistant to harmful factors but sometimes lesions can appear. Most common lesions are: pressure sores, skin tears, cutting lesions, abrasions and blisters.
Depending on your actual living situation, ‘skin at risk’ can potentially result in different kind of skin lesions.

Skin Tears

skin_tears (1)A ‘skin tear’ can be defined as a traumatic wound and frequently seen among elderly people (65+, > 80 years) primarily at limbs ( arms and legs), hands. The aging process of the skin is the most important cause.

A skin tear appears when a fragile skin is hurt against a hard or sharp object. Also shearing forces and friction can be an important risk factor. Skin tears can be described as a loosening of the epidermal layer from the dermal layer or a loosening of the epidermal layer, together with the dermal layer from the underlying structures.

Very often, the cause is very banal ( small, minor accidents which happens all the time at home, transfer from bed to wheelchair, bed to seat.

Risk factors are: being > 80 year, being a women, immobility, usage of corticosteroids over a longer period. Generally speaking, every nursing home patient is a patient at risk. Overall, skin tears are not life threatening; they are however often very painful. The care and treatment can be very expensive and often wound infection can be diagnosed. Most often, the skin tear wound classification of Payne and Martin is used to classify the gravity of the lesion ( without loss of tissue / partial loss of skin tissue / total loss of skin tissue). In literature, it is very difficult to find proper findings about prognosis, evolution toward a chronic wound, relapse. The average time needed to heal a skin tear can be estimated at 10 to 21 days. In most of the cases, patients have multiple skin tears; average: 2,5 to 2,6 skin tears/patient.

Science behind skin tears

CLASSIFICATION SKIN TEARS

Developed in the late 1980s, the Payne-Martin Classification for Skin Tears addresses assessment, prevention, and treatment of skin tears. Although relatively new and not well known, this classification tool can help you assess, document, and track patient outcomes.


The classification system is divided into three categories:

Category I-skin tears without tissue loss:

  • A linear type Category Ia skin tear; ’ full thickness wound’ ;the epidermis and dermis have been pulled apart, as if an incision had been made.
  • A flap type Category Ib skin tear; ‘partial thickness wound’; the epidermal flap completely covers the dermis to within 1 mm of the wound margin.

Category II-skin tears with partial tissue loss; ‘ partial thickness Wound’:

  • With a scant tissue loss type Category IIa skin tear, 25% or less of the epidermal flap is lost.
  • With a scant tissue loss type Category IIb skin tear, more than 25% of the epidermal flap is lost. The Category IIb skin tear is referred to as a moderate to large tissue loss type skin tear.

Category III-skin tears with complete tissue loss; ‘ partial thickness Wound’:

  • The epidermal flap is absent in this type of skin tear.
Skin tear category III

Skin tear category III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Skin tear category II

Skin tear category II

Care

Gently cleanse skin tear and surrounding skin using normal saline or wound cleanser. Do not rub the affected area.

  • Let the area air dry or pat dry the surrounding area very carefully with a soft towel.
  • Bring the loosen tissues to each other.
  • Apply the soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology to support the wound healing process based on the principle of moist healing.
  • If necessary, put a mark on the soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology how to remove the dressing. This limits the risk to damage newly formed tissues when changing the dressing.

When surfaces in contact( f.e. surface and human skin ) move relative to each other, the friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy into heat. This heat leads to degradation of the different epidermal layers. The skin becomes warm and irritated and soon a blister or superficial burn will appear. Friction wounds are frequently seen among persons doing intensive sport activities such as running, skiing, cycling, ….

Friction wounds are frequently seen among persons having spasms or persons with involuntary movements. Also people using prosthesis or wheelchairs often have friction lesions.

Redness of the skin due to excess of friction leads to increased pain awareness. The pain can severely interrupt the comfort. The most frequent protocol is after-care: treating a blister for days following activity to promote healing and protect against continued skin damage.

Care


To limit the risk of having skin irritation, we can easily give you hundreds of different advices. It’s not always very easy to find the right solution. Remember that every foot is different and that a perfect solution for your friend is not necessarily the best one for you.

However, there exist some overall tips to avoid skin irritation; of course, it’s always better to take care of it before you start walking or running:blisters2

‘Prevention is better than cure’:

  • Use made good shoes which suits you! A good shoe should be adapted to the surface.
  • Use as much as possible socks without seams. Seams provokes extra friction and pressure

Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology on already weakened spots before you starts walking to limit the risk for skin irritation.

Wear two pair of thin cotton socks with a little powder between them. This too will reduce the friction on the bottom of the feet.

Used as protective dressing:

  • Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology over the area at risk to protect the skin from further damage. Thanks to the bi-elasticity of the soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology, the kinetic energy due to the excess of localized friction will be spread all over the dressing. The skin will stay intact and together with a pain relief, the patient comfort will significantly increase.

Used on a friction wound:

  •  Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology on the friction wound to protect the skin from further damage. Thanks to the bi-elasticity of the soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology, the kinetic energy due to the excess of localized friction will be spread all over the dressing. Pain relief will significantly increase the patient comfort. Also, the soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology will support the wound healing process based on the principle of moist wound healing. The wound won’t dry out allowing the wound to heal optimally.

A blister is a small pocket of fluid within the upper layers of the skin (between dermis and epidermis ), typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction)or burning. An irritated red skin is the first sign. The most common cause is a poor fitting shoe combined with an activity that creates excessive friction on a certain part of the foot. Generally the size and location of the blisters will determine the amount of pain.

Blisters are the most common sports injury. The pain can severely interrupt the performance of an athlete — distance runners, hikers, hunters and non-athletes alike. The most frequent protocol is after-care: treating a blister for days following activity to promote healing and protect against continued skin damage.

Walking on a hot surface or walking on a hot summer day increases the temperature of the feet. This increase of temperature amplifies when pinching shoes or badly ventilated shoes are used. The higher temperature increases the risk for blistering; higher temperature demands only very little friction to weaken the different skin layers and to provoke a blister. On the other hand, cold diminishes the blood circulation which itself increases also the risk for having a blister.

Care

How to handle a blister?

  • Closed blisters:

If the blister causes no excessive pain, it’s much better to leave it like it is. Piercing the blister can cause secondary Infections. Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology over the blister.

If necessary, drain the blister without removing the top portion of it. The best way to do this is to clean a needle with alcohol, then pierce the blister in at least two places. Put pressure on the cap of the blister to squeeze out the fluid. Once drained it is important to not remove the cap as this acts as a protective barrier against the raw skin that is on the bottom of the blister.

  • Open blisters:

It is important to cleanse or disinfect the wound as the weel as the surrounding skin. Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology over the wound.

shearing_forcesShearing Wounds

Shear force or a force created when the skin of a patient stays in one place as the deep fascia and skeletal muscle slide down with gravity. This can also cause the pinching off of blood vessels which may lead to ischemia and tissue necrosis. Bedridden patients and wheelchair users in half-sitting position are very vulnerable for shear wounds.

Friction wounds are frequently seen among persons having spasms or persons with involuntary movements. Also people using prosthesis or wheelchairs often have friction lesions.

Care

The best way to diminish the risk shear wounds is to make sure that the patient is sitting in a upright position. Take care that the patient can’t glide to a half-sitting position, a major concern which in many cases leads to a shear wound.

Use a proper lifting technique to move the patient. Make sure you lift the patient properly; do not try to lift the patient by tearing him into a new position.shear_wounds

Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology over the area at risk to protect the skin. Thanks to the bi-elasticity of the soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology, shear force will be spread all over the dressing. The risk of shear wounds diminishes significantly.

superficial_burnsSuperficial burns, stage I and II

Burns can be caused by dry heat (fire),wet heat (steam or hot fluids), radiation (sun), heated objects, extreme cold, inhaling smoke or toxic fumes, particularly from chemical explosions or house fires, electricity or chemicals.

 

 

 

The severity of the burn depends on:

  • The size
  • The area
  • The depth
  • The cause

Science behind superficial burns

CLASSIFICATION OF SUPERFICIAL BURNS

partial_thickness_burnsSuperficial burns
Superficial burns only affect the surface of the skin (epidermis). Your skin will be red and painful, but not blistered. Mild sunburn is an example of a superficial burn.
Partial-thickness burns
Partial-thickness burns are deeper burns that damage your epidermis and dermis to varying degrees. If the damage to your dermis is shallow, your skin may be pale pink and painful, with blisters. Deeper burns to your dermis will cause your skin to become dry or moist, blotchy and red. Deep partial-thickness burns can be painful or painless and may blister.

Care of superficial burns

Treatment for burns depends on their severity. You can treat superficial and minor partial-thickness burns caused by heat at home. However, seek medical help:

  • all deep partial-thickness and full-thickness burns;
  • all chemical and electric burns;
  • superficial and partial-thickness burns covering an area larger than the palm of your hand;
  • burns that cover a joint or are on the face, hands, feet or groin;
  • all airway or suspected smoke inhalation burns.

Home treatment:

  • Begin by flooding your burn with cool (not cold) water for 10 to 30 minutes or until the pain is relieved.
  • Don’t burst any blisters that form on your burn.
  • In case of a superficial and shallow partial-thickness burns, apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology over the affected area. Covering a partial-thickness burn will reduce pain and speed healing..
  • Superficial and shallow partial-thickness burns usually heal within three weeks, with minimal scarring.

Note: Ointments or creams may help superficial burns like sunburn, but don’t apply them to any deeper burns that have caused a change in your skin color or blisters. Always ask your pharmacist for advice before applying ointments or creams.

Superficial Pressure Sores

superficial_pressurePressure ulcers are caused by unrelieved pressure, applied with great force over a short period (or with less force over a longer period), that disrupts blood supply to the capillary network, impeding blood flow and depriving tissues of oxygen and nutrients.

This external pressure must be greater than arterial capillary pressure to lead to inflow impairment and resultant local ischemia and tissue damage. See: classification of superficial pressure sores. Predisposing factors are classified as intrinsic (e.g., limited mobility, poor nutrition, aging skin) or extrinsic (e.g., pressure, friction, shear, moisture). The most common sites for pressure ulcers are the sacrum, heels, ischium, tuberosities, greater trochanters and lateral malleoli.

Science

CLASSIFICATION OF SUPERFICIAL PRESSURE SORES:

  • Stage I: Non-blanchable erythema of intact skin:

A bedsore appears first as a reddened area of skin, which then starts to break down to form an open, raw, oozing wound. Stage 1 has unbroken, but pink or ashen (in darker skin) discoloration with perhaps slight itch or tenderness. The discoloration is permanent, even when pressure is relieved; the skin is pink/red and does not become white when you put a finger on the affected area . Usually over a bony prominence. The affected tissue may be painful, firm, soft, or warmer or cooler compared with adjacent tissue

  • Stage II: red, swollen skin with a blister or open areas:

Partial-thickness loss of dermis appearing as a shallow, open ulcer with a red-pink wound bed, without slough; may also appear as an intact or open/ruptured serum-filled blister.

Stage 1 pressure sore

Stage 1 pressure sore

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

swollen_skin

Stage 2 pressure sore

Care

How to deal with superficial pressure sores? superficial_pressure

Important: Do not attempt self-care for any ulcer beyond stage 2 in appearance.

The area may heal with relief of pressure and by applying care to the affected skin.

A good diet will aid skin healing, especially by taking in enough vitamin C and zinc, which are available as supplements.

Effective skin care:

  • If the skin is not broken, gently wash the area with a mild soap and water.
  • Clean open sores on the skin with a saline solution.
  • Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology on the wound or on the area to protect.
  • Be sure to keep urine and stool away from affected areas.

Relieve pressure:

  • Change positions often (every 15 minutes in a chair and every 2 hours in a bed).
  • Use special soft materials or supports (pads, cushions, and mattresses) to reduce pressure against the skin.

abrasions2Abrasions

Abrasions (where only the surface layer of skin is cut or scraped off) may bleed and feel slightly painful, but the affected area will normally scab over and heal quickly. The wound is caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis. Abrasion injuries most commonly occur when exposed skin comes into moving contact with a rough surface, causing a grinding or rubbing away of the upper layers of the epidermis.

Care

How to handle an abrasion?

The dept of the wound depends on the circumstances ; most abrasions are shallow scrapes that do not extend into the dermis and don’t cause a great deal of bleeding. While there is often little or no blood loss from an abrasion, there can be a great deal of pain because of the many nerve endings that are exposed.

Minor scrapes usually don’t require a trip to the physician. Yet proper care is essential to avoid infection or other complications.

These guidelines can help you care for simple wounds:

It is recommended to go to a physician if:

  • you are not vaccinated against tetanus.
  • you can’t stop the bleeding.
  • you can’t clean the wound properly.
  • the abrasion is larger than the half of a palm.
  • bones, muscles or other tissues are visible.
  • the face, the eyes or the genitals are hurt.
  • the wound is contaminated by a ‘dirt’ object.
  • First, because abrasions can easily become infected, you should clean the area thoroughly and remove any dirt and debris.
  • Conventional treatment of abrasions and road rash include treating the area by cleaning the wound with mild soap and water or a mild antiseptic wash
  • Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology to cover the wound . The dressing should be changed every few days. Keep the wound moist until it has healed. A moist environment promotes healing, improves tissue formation and protects the area from infection.

Scratch lesions

scratch_lesionsItching is an intense, distracting irritation or tickling sensation that may be felt all over the skin’s surface, or confined to just one area. The medical term for itching is pruritus.

 Itching instinctively leads most people to scratch the affected area. Different people can tolerate different amounts of itching, and anyone’s threshold of tolerance can be changed due to stress, emotions, and other factors. In general, itching is more severe if the skin is warm, and if there are few distractions. This is why people tend to notice itching more at night. Stress and emotional upset can make itching worse, no matter what the underlying cause. If emotional problems are the primary reason for the itch, the condition is known as psychogenic itching.

Care

How to handle scratch lesions?

Scratching is an automatic reaction to itching and can cause minor skin lesions. Once healed, often, these ‘old’ scratch lesions give extra itching which gives a worsening of the skin condition. The skin becomes vulnerable to new lesions.

  • Try to find out the cause of the itching and follow the proposed treatment.
  • Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology over the affected area to protect the skin from further damage. In case of already existing scratch wounds, the soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology will support the wound healing process.

intertrigo2

Intertrigo

Intertrigo is an inflammatory condition of skin folds, induced or aggravated by heat, moisture, maceration, friction, and lack of air circulation. Intertrigo frequently is worsened or colonized by infection, which most commonly is candidal but also may be bacterial, fungal, or viral.

 Intertrigo occurs more often among overweight individuals, those with diabetes, those restricted to bed rest or diaper use, and those who use medical devices, like artificial limbs, that trap moisture against the skin. An intertrigo usually develops from the chafing of warm, moist skin in the areas of the inner thighs and genitalia, the armpits, under the breasts, the underside of the belly, behind the ears, and the web spaces between the toes and fingers.

An intertrigo usually appears red and raw-looking, and may also itch, ooze, and be sore. The appearance of intertrigo is dependent on the skin area involved and the duration of inflammation. Erythema and weeping may progress to maceration and crusting. Fissuring may follow erosion. Pustules or vesicles may herald infection. In the perineum, depths of the skin folds are involved compared to purely irritant diaper dermatitis in which only convex surfaces are involved.

Care

How to deal with intertrigo?

Take steps to eliminate friction, heat, and maceration by keeping folds cool and dry:

1. Avoid skin to skin contact:

  • Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology between the folds

2. Try not to sweat:

  • Wear absorbing clothes and socks. Open-toed shoes or sandals may help reduce toe web-space moisture ; be sure to avoid tight, occlusive, or chafing clothing or dressings
  • Try to create a friendly environment with lower temperature and expose skin folds to the air as much as possible.

3. Keep the skin folds dry:

  • Apply a protective silicone barrier spray or cream. Take care that the skin is 100% dry en apply now a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology. Don’t use talcum powder, pastes,…

Hallux Valgus

Skin irritation due to friction is frequently seen with people having an hallux . Also people wearing new new shoes often have after a while skin redness due to friction . When surfaces in contact ( human skin and external object ) move relative to each other, the friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy into heat.

tissueEnlargement of bone or tissue ( bunion) around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).The big toe may turn in toward the second toe (angulation), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender. Today the term usually is used to refer to the pathological bump on the side of the great toe joint. The bump is the swollen bursal sac and/or an osseous (bony) anomaly on the mesophalangeal joint (where the first metatarsal bone and hallux meet). Symptoms of bunions include irritated skin around the bunion, pain when walking, joint redness and pain, and possible shift of the big toe toward the other toes. Blisters may form more easily around the site of the bunion as well.

Having bunions can also make it harder to find shoes that fit properly; bunions may force a person to have to buy a larger size shoe to accommodate the width the bunion creates. Wearing high heels also becomes more of a problem for those with bunions as the heel puts pressure on the toes, which may be irritating to most people in general, but particularly for people with bunions.

Care

How to handle a Hallux Valgus?

In case of a very important bunion which causes too much pain and discomfort, it may be obvious to have a surgery intervention. In reality, most of the bunions have a moderate size and causes discomfort and pain which will be handled conservatively.

Try to avoid excess of friction with human skin. Use proper shoes and apply an adequate dressing to eliminate the effects of the friction force. A soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology can be used as a protective layer as a preventive measure. In case of an already irritated skin, a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology can be applied to minimize further skin damage.

Cuts are some of the most common injuries. Minor cuts may bleed and feel slightly painful, but the affected area will normally scab over and heal quickly. Most cuts can be easily treated at home. More severe cases may need medical attention, such as stitches to close the wound.cuts

Care

How to deal with minor cuts and grazes?

Minor cuts and scrapes usually don’t require a trip to the physician. Yet proper care is essential to avoid infection or other complications. These guidelines can help you care for simple wounds:

1. Stop the bleeding. Minor cuts and scrapes usually stop bleeding on their own. If they don’t, apply gentle pressure with a clean cloth or bandage. Hold the pressure continuously for 20 to 30 minutes and if possible elevate the wound. Don’t keep checking to see if the bleeding has stopped because this may damage or dislodge the clot that’s forming and cause bleeding to resume. If blood spurts or continues flowing after continuous pressure, seek medical assistance.

2. Clean the wound. Rinse out the wound with clear water. Soap can irritate the wound, so try to keep it out of the actual wound. If dirt or debris remains in the wound after washing, use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove the particles. Thorough cleaning reduces the risk of infection and tetanus. To clean the area around the wound, use soap and a washcloth.

3. Apply a soft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology over the wound. Asoft silicone dressing with ReSkin technology can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out. Change the dressing at least daily or whenever it becomes wet or dirty.

4. Get stitches for deep wounds. A wound that is more than 1/4-inch (6 millimeters) deep or is gaping or jagged edged and has fat or muscle protruding usually requires stitches. Adhesive strips or butterfly tape may hold a minor cut together, but if you can’t easily close the wound, see your doctor as soon as possible. Proper closure within a few hours reduces the risk of infection.

5. Watch for signs of infection. See your doctor if the wound isn’t healing or you notice any redness, increasing pain, drainage, warmth or swelling.

6. Get a tetanus shot. Doctors recommend you get a tetanus shot every 10 years. If your wound is deep or dirty and your last shot was more than five years ago, your doctor may recommend a tetanus shot booster. Get the booster as soon as possible after the injury.

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